Stability Screening For Monohulls


There are many types of races ranging from trans-oceanic races beyond the reach of any outside rescue facility to inshore races of short duration where rescue boats are available along the entire race course. In the Offshore Special Regulations (OSR) ISAF has divided these into 7 categories (see OSR 2.01). Under OSR 3.04.3 ISAF strongly recommends that for category 0 through 4 races the race organizer should require compliance with a minimum stability/buoyancy index. CYA endorses that recommendation. 

The International Standards Organization (ISO) has created a standard for sailboats of hull length no less than 6m, ISO 12217-2 with design categories (A to D) for different types of sailing. These may be used as a general guide to suitability for meeting the OSR categories (see table 1). When choosing the OSR category, race organizers should consider the maximum conditions for the ISO design categories. 

Note that compliance with any of the screening systems mentioned herein does not guarantee total safety or total freedom of risk from capsize or sinking. 

Table 1 
Summary of Maximum Design Category Conditions under ISO 12217-2 

ISO Category
OSR Category
Significant wave height*
Wind in Beaufort scale
Wind in knots

* Height in metres. Some waves will be double this height. 
* Ocean Navigator published an informative article discussing which waves pose a danger to a boat. 
ISO considers category 0 races as special cases for which race organizers specify the criteria. 
Since the cross references in OSR 3.04.4 don't mention ISO category D it won't be found in this discussion. 

If sustained conditions meeting or exceeding these are forecast or encountered, race organizers should consider postponing or abandoning the race. 

Note that some one-design classes may specify other limits which should be followed. 

Stability/Buoyancy Screening Systems 
The preferred systems for stability/buoyancy screening are: 

Any boat, no matter where she was built, sold in the European Economic Area (EEA) since June 15, 1998 is required to have undergone a certification process involving many ISO standards. The standard germain to this discussion is ISO 12217 Part 2 ( ISO 12217-2 ). 

Since this is the most recent and arguably most sophisticated screening tool available to date it is the preferred method. 

Boats independantly verified as meeting the minimum sailing weight, STability IndeX (STIX) and Angle of Vanishing Stability (AVS) under ISO 12217-2 and meeting the other standards are assigned an ISO category as summarized in table 2. 

Table 2 
Corresponding ISO 12217-2 Minimum Values 

OSR Category
ISO Category
but always ≥100°
but always ≥100°
but always ≥95°
Minimum Sailing Weight (m)
3,000 kg
3,000 kg
1,500 kg

OSR 3.04.4 recommends that race organizers accept the ISO category (A-C) appropriate for the race. 

Race organizers may also choose to accept the ISO STIX or RORC STIX published where appropriate on an IRC certificate, in which case the minimum AVS and minimum sailing weight from table 2 should also be required. 

Since under ISO a boat can't achieve a category unless its minimum sailing weight exceeds the stated minimum, and since displacement is a readily available parameter, this is a useful minimum value that should be required reqardless of the screening system(s) accepted. 

In addition to using the hull shape to determine the rating, the International Measurement System ( IMS) based rules such as Offshore Racing Council Congress (ORC) and Offshore Racing Rule (ORR) calculate a STaBility IndeX (STBIX). 

For races using ORR the minimum STBIX values published by ORR and duplicated in table 3 below may be accepted. 

Table 3 

OSR Category

Stability, Safety and Screening Numeral 
The Stability, Safety and Screening Numeral ( 
SSSN ) is a system which can be calculated from the same input parameters as required for a PHRF certificate, thus for almost any sailboat. The minimum recommended SSSN values are listed in table 4.

Table 4 
Minimum SSSN 

OSR Category

Unlike the STIX and ORR systems, SSSN estimates stability from rather basic parameters as compared to the rigourous and detailed process used by the other systems. As such it should only be used where other screening numbers are unavailable. 

SSSN is not intended, nor should be used, for unconventional boats including those with 
moveable ballast , wings or excessive flare. 

CYA recommends that stability screening should be required for category 0 through 4 races and that race organers adopt the following in diminishing order of precedence:

minimum ISO (or IRC) category per table 2 ,
minimum sailing weight for the category per table 2 ,
minimum ISO or IRC STIX and minimum AVS per table 2 ,
minimum ORC or ORR STBIX per table 3 ,
minimum SSSN per table 4 , except for boats with moveable ballast , wings or excessive flare.

Sail Canada Regional Championships


Click here to view Regional Championship Calendar

Annually awarding U17 and Open age Regional Canadian sailing champions!
Sail Canada-title Regional championships take place annually in Western, Atlantic, and (starting in 2012) Central Regions of Canada. Sail Canada Regional events hold the mandate to:
· Provide training and competitive experiences to any sailor over the age of 7 in the Optimist Dinghy, Laser 4.7, Laser Radial, 420, 29er, Laser and 2.4m classes;
· Award U17 and open age Regional National Champions in these classes;
· Provide professional development and mentoring to Instructors and Coaches and other qualified individuals toward Sail Canada Instructor or Coach certification;
· Build a legacy in the host region to deliver race programming and events by developing persons in Race Management, Judging, and Sport Event Organization;
And to;
· Serve as a qualifier in the regions’ Provincial sailing team selection processes, and for participation at Canada’s U19 Sailing Championships.
Sail Canada Regional Sailing Championships are intended to be held in the last week of July or first week of August each year and run over 4 days – 2 days training, 2 days of championship racing.
An invitation to bid to host Sail West and Sail East is provided to Sail Canada member organizations in good standing from the province of the region of Canada that the rotation tables below suggest.
There are 3 regions, set as follows:
· Western Canada – BC, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba
· Central Canada – Ontario, Quebec
· Eastern Canada – New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, PEI, Newfoundland and Labrador  
The following is agreed to by respective Provincial Sailing Associations as ideal rotation for the location of the Sail Canada Regional events:
Sail West with U17 Championships -


Sail Central with U17 Championships –
(The inaugural year for Sail Central was 2012. Due to what is already a busy calendar for our developing sailors, Sail Canada has embarked on a system of applying Sail Central into events already taking place for our developing athletes in Central Canada. The Sail Central event will take place at the annual events of Hudson Yacht Club’s Fruitbowl in Quebec, and CORK International, in Ontario, on an annually rotating basis.)


Sail East with U17 Championships –


NB: In the event that a PSA deems not to be bidding to host in a year they are entitled to, the opportunity to consider bidding will go to the other provinces of the region. Allocation to a province other than the one in rotation table does not result in revision to the set rotation (i.e. should MB not have taken their ‘turn’ to host SW in 2011 and BC hosted as alternate, BC would still get first offer to host in 2012, and MB’s next turn would fall in 2015).
Sail Canada Regional Championships Event Delivery Requirements
- with BID APPLICATION to host Sail East and Sail West
All Sail Canada Regional Championships are to be delivered according to the Sail Canada Regional Championships Event Delivery Requirements.   
Bidding to Host Sail East and CYA Sail West –
Sail Canada Member Organizations in good standing in Canada’s Western Region, and Canada’s Atlantic Region aspiring to host Sail Canada Regional Championship are asked to review the Sail Canada (CYA) Regional Championships Event Delivery Requirements file prior to fulfilling the Bid Application.
Bid application structure exists within the Event Delivery Requirements – please structure bids to host according to outline provided in the concluding section of the Sail Canada Regional Championships Event Delivery Package with Bid Application file - coming soon!
DATES and DEADLINES for Bid process
Calls for bids to regions and provinces will take place in August in the year 2 years prior to the event.
· PSA statement of intent to host is due to Sail Canada by 30 September
· Reallocation – if necessary – to be established by November 1st
Bid Applications may be submitted at any time prior to 18 month in advance of the event for which the Bid Application is being submitted.
Bid Applications are to be endorsed and submitted by the organization’s Provincial Sailing Association.
Bid applications are due at Sail Canada office no later than February 1st – approximately 18 months prior to the event’s delivery.
Public announcement of the awarding of the event will take place by May 1 of the year prior to the respective event.

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Canada Games

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The 2013 Canada Summer Games will take place in Sherbrooke, Quebec over 16 days from August 2nd to 17th 2013.
Sail Canada, the Fédération de Voile du Québec and the Club Nautique du Petit Lac Magog will play host to the Sailing event at the Games from August 1st to 8th 2013.

Canada Games Tickets - Now Available!    /    /    Lodging and Food Information for visitors

Canada Games Apprentice Coach Program:
The Sailing event will have two apprentice Coaches - one from Nova Scotia and another from Quebec - in the Women in Coaching Program.
Sailing Athlete Eligibility Appeals:


Regattas and Championships



Collegiate Programs

Collegiate Sailing
To learn more about Collegiate Sailing in Canada including regatta schedules, results and more, visit the Canadian InterCollegiate Sailing Association website


ISAF Event Grading & International Event Calendar

Does an event your club or class is planning to run in 2014 or 2015 qualify for ISAF International Grading? Perhaps your event qualifies for listing on the International Calendar? Applications for listing on ISAF calendar and Requests for ISAF Grading are to be submitted to Sail Canada for endorsement. Use this table for more information:


Fleet Race Event

Match Race Event

Grading Criteria

Fleet ISAF Grade Criteria

Match ISAF Rank Criteria

Calculating Grade

Fleet ISAF Grade Calculation

Match ISAF Rank Calculation

 Grade / Rank Request Forms

Fleet ISAF Grade Request Form

Match ISAF Rank Request Form

Due to Sail Canada by

July 20 2013 (for events in 2014) / July 20 2014 (for events in 2015)

5 months prior to event


CYA National Competitions List

2009 Title Events




National Events

Event Chair / Contacts

August 1-6

CYA Youth National Sailing Championship / Championnat national junior de voile de l’ACY with YOTS (Youth Olympic Training Seminar)

Royal Victoria Yacht Club

Victoria BC

John Edwards

July 17-19

CYA Sail West

Battleford's Sailing Club

Battleford, SK

Mark Lammens


ISAF Graded, World, North American and Class Championship Events in Canada

Event Chair / Contacts

June 25-28

Laser North American Championship

Buffalo Canoe Club

Ridgeway, ON


August 19-22
CORK International

CORK / Sail Kingston

Kingston, ON

August 23-27

CORK / Sail Kingston

Kingston, ON


August 18-September 5
Laser World Championships

St. Margaret Sailing Club

St. Margaret's Bay NS


CYA Title Event Info

2007 Events

2008 Events

2009 Events

2006 CYA Events Guidebook

Addendum to the 2006 CYA Events Guidebook

CYA Event Rotation

CYA Regatta Results

Event Host Application (updated July 2005)

CYA Regatta Entry Form

Title Events

Offshore Sail Numbers

Sail numbers are required for boat identification while racing and are useful for safety purposes. Sailboat owners must apply to Sail Canada for a sail number unless the boat is affiliated with a Sail Canada member class association that issues its own sail numbers.

Offshore sail numbers may be obtained by applying to tSail Canada. BC and Alberta residents may contact BC Sailing to purchase their number.

NEW Changes effective January 1st, 2008

New pricing structure:

$50 - Change to ownership &/or boat particulars for boats with a Sail Canada issued sail number

$125 - Sequential sail number

$200 - Personalized sail number (out of sequence). NOTE: some numbers are reserved as Collector numbers - see list below.

$500 - Collector sail number - Sail Canada has created a list of select collector numbers - Click here for the list of Collector numbers.

Purchasing a sail number
Complete the Offshore Sail Number Application form and return it to Sail Canada. Residents of BC and Alberta may contact BC Sailing to purchase their number.

U.S. Portsmouth Yardstick Numbers

Thanks to US Sailing, the following link will give you the most up to date info for the US Portsmouth Olympic Homepage.  

The US Sailing Portsmouth Yardstick is a widely used method of rating boats of different classes sailing the same course. These numbers are defined as the length of time boats would take to sail a common but unspecified distance.

Clubs and organizations using this rating system are asked to forward race data including information on the average wind velocity, class of boat, elapsed time and corrected time (if possible) to or by mail to Carl Reigart, 962 Diane Street, Leeds, AL 35094, or vial mail to US Sailing, Attn. Portsmouth Committee, PO Box 1260, Portsmouth, RI 02871 USA.




PHRF ratings are BOAT PERFORMANCE HANDICAPS. They are based upon the SPEED POTENTIAL of CLASSES of yachts. They are supposed to be determined from the actual observed performance of yachts on the race course.

PHRF ratings are not intended to be a skipper or crew handicapping system or to compensate for poor sailing ability or inadequate equipment. (as in golf handicaps)
PHRF ideally does not use formulae or measurements to arrive at ratings but uses race results to relate classes of yachts to their speed potentials. Thus yachts cannot be obsolete by newer or faster designs and PHRF ratings should be ideal for club and inter club racing.

New yacht designs to Lake Ontario do go through some data manipulations and analysis for initial assessment. This analysis is valid only until adequate race results are provided for review and validation of the rating.

A Standard Yacht meets certain criteria in that:
1) The rig hull and ballast are standard to the manufacturer's specifications.
2) The largest headsail without penalty has an LP of 155%
3) The spinnaker does not exceed 180%
4) The standard propulsion is either an outboard, which is retracted while racing, or a folding or feathering prop.
5) The spinnaker pole does not exceed the J with a standard spin.
6) The means of propulsion is capable of reaching SQRT (LWL)
7) Yachts with retractable keels must be capable of self-righting when the keel is retracted or the keel must be kept down while racing.

The Standard Yacht then begins by receiving the SP for that class of yacht. Adjustments are then made for the various credits and debits to arrive at the actual sailed rating or ASP.

PHRF is an honour system dependent on fair-minded yachtsmen and it is the sole responsibility of the owner to inform the handicapper of any changes in his yacht's allowances. A protest committee may at any time demand to see the certificate and require that the boat and sails be measured to assure conformity.

WHAT DO THE NUMBERS MEAN: The faster the yacht the lower the TOD (time on distance) ASP in seconds/nm. Using the TOT method of calculation we have a correction factor which represents a seconds/hour correction.

RATING CHANGES: ratings are not changed to 'stop' anyone from winning and every attempt is made to have rating changes reflect more accurately the SPEED

POTENTIAL as seen in race data for the class so that racing can be made more truly competitive on a skipper to skipper basis.

S.Cramer - Chief Handicapper
PHRF Lake Ontario Nov.30/86


Contact information for PHRF fleets:

PHRF Tools:

  • See US Sailing's Three Online Tools for PHRF Sailors on their PHRF Page



Questions about your own boat and measurement?

For information about your own boat, please contact your class association.

Do you have class measurers??

CYA encourages class associations to send along the names of current provincial, national and international class measurers to CYA. Please touch base with .

Report on Measurement Discussion, January 20 2002: What is measuring all about?

David Sprague (Vice Chair of ISAF Class Committee, Chair of International Measurement Subcommittee, CYA Senior Vice President) led this discussion which focussed upon the role of the ISAF Equipment Rules of Sailing, measurement activities occuring in Canada currently, as well proposed ways measurement could be improved in Canada. Attendees included an international Jury Member, one- design class measurers, a PHRF rep and CYA staff.

A general consensus gained included a)ensuring CYA has accurate info at the office with regards to measurers for each class/as well as other "measurement people resources", b)need to expose more people (and youth) to measurement prior to international competition at domestic regattas, c)need for a basic/how to document for people starting out with measurement, and d) general mentorship opportunities.


The appeal process in Canada is according to rule the Sail Canada Prescriptions to rule 70 and Appendix R.

When a party to a hearing appeals a protest committee's decision, the appeal is sent to Sail Canada. E-mail submissions are preferred, but not required. Use this contact information:

Sail Canada 
53 Yonge Street,
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7M 6G4


Under the prescription to Appendix R, Sail Canada may delegate an appeal to a yacht racing association or provincial sailing association, as appropriate. If your appeal is delegated, the appeal committee for the yacht racing or provincial sailing association will contact you to process the appeal. Otherwise, the Sail Canada Appeals Committee will contact you.

The procedure to follow to file an appeal is outlined in the Racing Rules of Sailing in Appendix R - Procedures for Appeals and Requests.

Under this prescription, a decision of a yacht racing association or provincial sailing association may be further appealed or referred to the Sail Canada Appeals Committee. Any action by a National Authority under rule 69.3, Allegations of Gross Misconduct is handled by the Sail Canada Appeals Committee.

Appeals Publications

The Racing Rules of Sailing 2013-2016. Any changes in these rules are announced through Sail Canada, and posted on the ISAF website at

The Sail Canada prescriptions to the Racing Rules of Sailing

The ISAF Cases, recognized by ISAF as authoritative interpretations and explanations of the rules.

The Sail Canada Appeals Book , Interpretations of The Racing Rules of Sailing, 2013-2016,  April 2013 edition.

These publications may also be available for sale at sailing clubs, sailing schools, marine stores, from your Provincial Sailing Association and Sail Canada.


Protest situations happen to all racers at some point on the water. Please download the following Protest or Redress Forms, and/or look for information in this section with regard to what you can do you if you wish to further pursue a protest decision.

Protest Form

Sail Canda Redress Form

Appeal Process

ISAF Case Book 2005-8

CYA Appeals for 2005-2008 Racing Rules of Sailing Updated January 22, 2007

Rule 68: Insurance: Collision and Damage

Protests and Appeals

Protest situations happen to all racers at some point on the water. Please download the following Protest or Redress Forms, and/or look for information in this section with regard to what you can do you if you wish to further pursue a protest decision.

CYA Protest Form

CYA Redress Form

Appeal Process

ISAF Case Book 2005-8

CYA Appeals for 2005-2008 Racing Rules of Sailing Updated January 22, 2007

Rule 68: Insurance: Collision and Damage

Interpretations of the Racing Rules

2013 to 2016 ISAF Case Book to be coming soon.

Experimental Arbitration System

From the ISAF International Judges Manual:
Appendix 8. Protest Arbitration

Protest arbitration is a process of resolving protests without the formality of a full protest hearing. Arbitration is simply a short meeting between the sailors involved in a protest and an experienced judge serving as the arbitrator. The sailors tell the arbitrator what happened on the water and the arbitrator makes a decision about which boat, if any, broke a rule. The party that broke a rule is offered the chance to take a reduced penalty. If the arbitrator’s decision is accepted, the protestor withdraws his protest and the dispute is resolved before the protest is formally heard by the Protest Committee. The primary purpose of arbitration is to simplify and speed up the protest process for incidents that do not require the full protest hearing process.

8.1 The Penalty
A penalty accepted at arbitration holds the same status as an alternative penalty taken on the water or a penalty imposed in the full Protest Committee hearing. The alternative penalty for arbitration should be more than an alternative penalty taken on the water, but significantly less than a DSQ. Most judges have found that a 40% penalty works best. A more severe penalty often results in a competitor refusing to take it and instead taking a chance on a DSQ in the protest room. A less severe penalty cheapens the penalty that a competitor promptly accepts on the water. The arbitration scoring penalty is the number of points equal to 40% of the boats entered (rounding 0.5 upward) added to her finishing place, except that she shall not be scored worse than the points for a DSQ. As in other scoring penalties, there is no change to the finishing order of other boats in the race. Therefore two boats may receive the same score.

8.2 Principles of Arbitration
In considering arbitration for an event, it is important for the organisers and the Protest Committee to understand the impact of arbitration on the racing rules. When used as described here, arbitration is consistent with the 2001- 2004 Racing Rules of Sailing. No rules in Part 5 (Protests, Redress, Hearings, Misconduct and Appeals) that protect the interests of the competitors are compromised by arbitration. All of the safeguards built into Part 5 Section A (Protests and Redress) and Part 5 Section B (Hearings and Decisions) remain in place. If the decision of the arbitrator is accepted by the protestor, the protest is withdrawn. If not, the protest remains and must be heard under the rules of Part 5 by the Protest Committee. See rule 63.1 (Requirement for a Hearing).

It is advisable that competitors be notified in the notice of race and sailing instructions that all protests involving a rule of Part 2 will be subject to arbitration. The sailing instructions should include:

"Rule 44.1 is changed to permit a boat to take a 40% scoring penalty as calculated in rule 44.3(c) during the arbitration hearing".

  • Arbitration takes place after a written protest has been filed, but prior to the protest hearing. The arbitration hearing is held in a quiet location, well away from other competitors and observers. Testimony given during arbitration should not be overheard by any potential witnesses of a subsequent protest hearing. Only the arbitration judge, the protestor and the protestee are permitted to attend. No witnesses will be allowed. If a competitor believes his case requires a witness, the protest will go to a protest hearing.

The hearing is informal but efficient. At the outset of the hearing, the arbitrator will explain the process so that the competitors are comfortable with the procedure. The following principles should be followed:

  • Arbitration should only be used for protests where:
    • the incident involves two boats only. A protest involving three or more boats is usually too complex for a single judge to handle in less than 15 minutes.
    • the incident is limited to the rules of Part 2. If it becomes clear that other rules are applicable, or another boat may be involved, the arbitration hearing should be closed and the protest forwarded to the protest committee.
    • there was no contact that could have caused inProtest Committee or serious damage.
  • An arbitration hearing is not a protest hearing. While the general procedures of hearing a protest are used in arbitration, the arbitrator is not bound by the rules of Part 5 that govern the conduct of a protest hearing. The arbitrator and the competitors should understand that any participant in an arbitration hearing may decide that the protest should heard by the Protest Committee. Such a request from a competitor must not be denied.
  • The arbitrator conducts the hearing with the knowledge that the protest may still become a protest hearing. The arbitrator never enters into a discussion an interpretation of a rule or answers questions about his conclusions until his decision is accepted and the protest withdrawn.
  • The arbitration hearing begins with validity. The arbitrator may accept validity or may suggest that the protest be withdrawn when it is clearly invalid. If the validity of the protest is unclear, the arbitrator should refer the protest to the Protest Committee.
  • Using model boats, the arbitrator takes each party’s evidence in turn, allowing questioning, but tightly controlling testimony. The decision made during arbitration is based on the high probability that more rigorous questioning of the parties or their witnesses will not substantially change the facts presented to the arbitrator.
  • The arbitrator will decide:
    1. One or both boats broke a rule. Without saying so, the arbitrator applies the principles of exoneration to a boat that has been compelled by the other boat to break a rule. See rule 64.1(b).
    2. Neither boat broke a rule.
    3. The protest should go to the Protest Committee. The protest might be too complicated to decide without witnesses or may involve a rule not suited to arbitration.
  • The entire process should take no longer than 15 minutes. If that time is exceeded, the issue is too complex for arbitration, and the arbitration hearing should be terminated. The protest is then forwarded to the protest committee.
  • If the arbitrator’s decision is accepted and the appropriate penalty(s) taken, the protestor may withdraw the protest. For arbitration hearings, the Protest Committee agrees to give the arbitrator the right to act on the committee’s behalf and approve a request to withdraw a protest under rule 63.1 (Requirement for a Hearing).
  • If the protest is not withdrawn, it must be heard by the Protest Committee. Sometimes a protestor may refuse to withdraw the protest in order that the protestee will be scored DSQ in the protest hearing. The arbitrator may need to explain that if a boat accepts a penalty in the arbitration hearing, rule 44.4(b) (Limits on Penalties) applies. In such a case, the protest committee may penalize the protestor in the subsequent protest hearing, but the boat that took the penalty may not be penalized further.
  • Once the protest is withdrawn, the arbitrator is free to discuss any phpect of the case with the parties to the hearing. Successful arbitration is often followed with a number of “what if” scenarios played out between the judge and the sailors.
  • The arbitration judge must not serve as a member of the protest committee impaneled to hear that same protest. There are two reasons for this. First, the arbitration judge will always be seen by the competitors to have already made up his mind. Second, the arbitrator will invariably have evidence obtained during arbitration that will not be available in the protest hearing.
  • Testimony given during the arbitration hearing shall remain confidential and the arbitrator shall not discuss any phpect of the arbitration with the Protest Committee before the hearing. The arbitration judge shall not be called as a witness. His testimony is not first hand.
  • It is desirable but not mandatory that the arbitrator not be an observer in a protest hearing of the same incident. Some judges believe that the arbitrator’s presence in the hearing room keeps the parties from changing their stories. That view must be weighed against the importance of having the arbitration process be seen by the sailors as completely separate from the protest hearing.

8.3 The Procedures
When a protest is delivered to the protest desk, the judge or Protest Committee secretary accepting protests logs the time and asks the protestor to stand by. A judge then determines if the protest is suitable for arbitration and if so, the protestor is asked to find the representative of the other boat. The arbitration hearing is scheduled to be heard as soon as both boats are present.

If one of the parties does not come to the arbitration hearing, the arbitration hearing does not proceed. The voluntary nature of arbitration makes rule 63.3(b) inapplicable. The Protest Committee secretary will schedule the protest for a protest hearing.

The judge should have available the notice of race, the sailing instructions and any amendments to them, a current rule book, a watch to keep track of the time and boat models. If he desires, he may also have The Case Book on hand, but he should not refer to it while the competitors are in the room. However, if an ISAF Case must be consulted, the incident may already be too complex for arbitration.

Preprinted forms for penalty acceptance and withdrawing the protest are useful but not mandatory. The arbitrator assists the protestor in correcting protest contents under rule 61.2. The arbitrator does not write his decision on the protest form in case his decision is not accepted by the competitors.

Keep in mind that even if both parties agree with the arbitration decision, the arbitration is not complete until the withdrawal of the protest is approved by the arbitrator. It is advisable to have a signature from a competitor accepting a penalty during arbitration or from a boat withdrawing the protest. If no forms are available, the arbitrator can write on the protest form the words “I withdraw this protest” or “I acknowledge breaking a rule and accept a 40% penalty.” and the competitor is asked to sign the statement.

The arbitrator may accept a request, with good reason, to withdraw the protest before the arbitration hearing. However, if the hearing proceeds and the arbitrator decides the protestor broke a rule, the protester is not permitted to withdraw the protest before he accepts the penalty.

If the arbitration is not accepted, the arbitrator must not discuss any part of the arbitration decision with the Protest Committee. When the protest is withdrawn, the arbitrator should freely discuss the protest with the competitors and may refer them to a specific rule, case or other pertinent information.

Arbitration decisions are not subject to appeal. Rule 70.1 dictates that only Protest Committee decisions can be appealed. If the arbitration decision is accepted the protest is withdrawn. So there is no protest remaining and nothing to appeal. If the protest is not withdrawn it remains to be decided by the Protest Committee whose decision may be subject to appeal.

8.4 The Arbitrator
The judge who will arbitrate should be a highly qualified and experienced judge with a strong command of the rules. The arbitrator must think and make decisions quickly and must command the respect of the sailors. An excellent deliberative judge may not make the best arbitrator and will usually be more valuable in untangling the complex protests that were not quickly resolved through arbitration. If a judge would like to learn the arbitration process, it is acceptable to allow him to audit the arbitration hearing as an observer, as long as both parties agree. But be aware that neither the arbitrator nor the observer will be able to sit on a panel that might later hear that protest.

8.5 Conclusion
Sailboat racing is a self-policing sport and the method to resolve a dispute on the water begins with the hail of “protest.” If the protested boat takes a penalty on the water, the dispute is resolved. If the protested boat does not take a penalty, the rest of the process is often seen by competitors to be too formal and too time consuming. Protest arbitration provides an intermediate method of protest resolution before the protest is heard formally by the protest committee. Arbitration gives sailors a chance to take a less severe penalty than disqualification when they realize that they have broken a rule. Arbitration does not solve all protests, but for most situations involving the rules of Part 2, arbitration is seen by competitors to be fast, informal and much less intimidating than attending a protest hearing.


The system of arbitration has been used very successfully at International events in the US and Caribbean for the last 5 years. As the system has evolved it has been found that it is necessary to be exacting about the Sailing Instructions when using the system.

It is necessary to alter two sections of the SI's. One section on PENALTY SYSTEMS [usually immediately preceding the section on PROTESTS] and the other section on ARBITRATION, which usually follows the section of the SI's on PROTESTS. Such modified sections of the SI's that have proved successful in practice are as follows:


14.1 A boat that may have broken a rule of Part 2 while racing may take a penalty at the time of the incident by promptly making a 720 degree Turn after the incident in compliance with RRS 44.2 or by taking a Scoring Penalty in compliance with RRS 44.3 3 as amended by Sailing Instruction 14.1.

14.1.1 The 20% penalty shall not be less than 2 places.

14.2 RRS 44.1 is modified to allow a boat to take an Arbitration Penalty for a breach of a rule of Part 2 after the incident but prior to the protest hearing by acknowledging the breach before arbitration or by accepting the opinion of the arbitrator. This Arbitration Penalty shall be 40% of the number of boats entered (rounding 0.5 upward), but shall not be less than four places, added to her finish position. However she shall not be scored worse than "Did not finish".


16.1 For protests involving an alleged breach of a rule of Part 2, a short arbitration hearing of not more than 10 minutes will be held prior to a protest hearing. This changes Part 5, Section B of the RRS.

16.2 After a written protest is delivered to the Protest Desk, one representative from each boat will meet with the arbitrator unless the protestor requests that the protest be withdrawn. No witnesses will be allowed. Protests not resolved by arbitration will be forwarded to the Protest Committee.

16.3 A boat that accepts the arbitrators opinion that she broke a rule of Part 2 shall receive a penalty score of 40% as detailed in Sailing Instruction 14.2.

16.4 The acceptance of an Arbitration Penalty cannot be grounds for redress or be appealed.

16.5 The arbitrator will not be a member of the Protest Committee that hears the protest but will be permitted to observe the testimony given to the Protest Committee and offer testimony. This changes rule 63.3(a).



Application of RRS 75 to determine Sailor Eligibility at Sail Canada Events and National Sailing Competitions in Canada

The following items are required to show at registration desk/check-in to confirm eligibility to race.

  1. Sail Canada member card (and valid proof of age for age restricted events);


  1. Proof of membership with a Sail Canada member club, or other ISAF member national authority (MNA)*, (and valid proof of age for age restricted events);

A sailor without

·         Sail Canada member card, or

·         proof of membership with a Sail Canada member club, or

·         proof of membership with other ISAF member national authority

·         may obtain a Right-to-Race card which will be available at the event registration desk for a fee.  A Right-to-Race sailor card is valid only until the completion of the event being entered.

Sail Canada member cards are issued by the Provincial Sailing Associations, who then issue them to Sail Canada  member clubs. Directors or mangers at the clubs then issue the cards to their members.

Proof of age - the following are valid forms of proof of age:

  • Valid passport;
  • Provincially issued identification – e.g. drivers’ license, health card;
  • Municipally issued photo accreditation that includes full name and birth date;
  • School- issued photo accreditation that includes full name and birth date.

Proof of membership with a Sail Canada member club or other organization – the following are acceptable means to prove membership or affiliation:

  • Membership card from Sail Canada member club or other ISAF MNA  – such card indicating name and type of membership held;
  • Official and original signed document (or copy – facsimile or electronic file) from director of the Sail Canada member club  – such document is to be on letterhead of the club, and need name the sailors and indicate the nature of the membership or affiliation with that organization;
  • On-site reference to member list on official website of the organization – such list will indicate full name and nature of the membership or affiliation.

A list of Sail Canada member clubs can be accessed in the members’ area of the Sail Canada website.

* I.e. US Sailing


Suspension of Eligibility

“Following a hearing conducted by Sail Canada under RRS Rule 69, Mr Al Schonborn of Oakville, Ontario,  is suspended from competing, either as skipper or crew, in any event in the sport of sailing in Canada until 15 September 2014.  Mr Schonborn’s ISAF eligibility is also suspended until 15 September 2014”


Race Management Tools

The Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) contain all the essential information for organising and running Sailboat racing. The following portions of the RRS are provided in the links below in downloadable form for regatta organisers.

NOR & SIs Guide & Template RRS 2013-16 Appendices K & L (in WORD format)

Sail Canada Protest form

Sail Canada request for redress form

RRS 42 – Interpretations

Racing Rules of Sailing

The Sail Canada/ISAF Racing Rules of Sailing (RRS) are published in a soft cover edition and are up-dated every 4 years. The book is available from Sail Canada and most clubs and every sailor, coach, official and organiser should own one for ready reference.

Full Sail Canada Prescriptions to the Racing Rules of Sailing 2013-2016 with recommendations when arbitration is offered.  DOC  PDF 

A summary of the changes to the Racing Rules of Sailing is available here. Many thanks to the Sail Canada Rules Committee and Judges' Sub-Committee

Rule Change
At its November meeting, the ISAF Council and the ISAF Racing Rules Committee authorised an urgent rule change to Appendix B of the ISAF Racing Rules of Sailing. The change will come into force on 1 January 2014.
Details of the rule change are available here. The document also repeats various proofreading errors which were published earlier this year.
Windsurfing Competition Rules 2013 - 2016
In Appendix B, two undetected errors copied from the ISAF Rule Book have been reproduced in the version published by Sail Canada.
The errors are located on pages 70 and 81 of the Sail Canada published version.  The changes are noted in this ISAF release. 

Rules and Regatta Management

Whether you are a regatta organizer, a club trying to determine the best handicap rating system, a measurer, or a sailor striving to understand the rules…read on!  Sail Canada has many programs and services in place to help in the development and maintenance of appropriate rules and regulations.

The Racing Rules of Sailing

Race Management Tools

Interpretations of the Racing Rules of Sailing





U.S. Portsmouth Numbers

The experimental arbitration system

Race Officials

Offshore Racing

Sail Canada's Offshore Group monitors and promotes Offshore Racing activities in Canada. Membership is currently Will Apold, NS, Guy Perrin, ON, Richard Hinterhoeller, ON and David Sutcliffe, BC, supported by Sail Canada’s Executive Director, Paddy Boyd.

The Offshore group are represented on the ISAF Oceanic and Offshore and Special Regulations committees. 

Sail Canada also accredits ISAF Offshore Personal Survival Course Providers in Canada.

Sail Canada recommends that offshore race organisers use the Offshore Special Regulations, and, where appropriate the Sail Canada Prescriptions to the OSR.

Stability Screening for Monohulls 

For information about offshore sailing in your area, please contact your Provincial Sailing Association.

Sail Numbers
IRC in Canada  

ISAF Offshore Personal Survival Course - get accredited!





2013 - 
2013 Youth National (U19) Championship -  Singlehanded   Doublehanded
2013 Women's National Keelboat Championship - Final Results
2013 Canadian Optimist Dinghy Championship - Final Results
2013 CORK OCR (with Sail Canada Senior Nationals & U19 Board Sailing Championships) -  Laser  Radial  Finn  49er Gold  49er Silver  49er FX  International 14  KONA  RSX  Windsurfer
2013 Sail Central at CORK International - Laser  Radial  4.7  29er  420
2013 Canada Games - LASER   RADIAL   29ER MALE    29ER FEMALE    2.4M 
2012 Mobility Cup - Final Results
2012 Craig & Ross CYA Youth National Championships - Final Results
2012 Opti Canadian Championships - Final Results
2012 CORK International - Laser Radial  420  Laser  Laser 4.7
2012 Canada Games 2.4m Test Event - Final Results
2012 Opti CORK & Windsurfer Canadians - Opti  Opti Green  Kona  RSX  Windsurfer
2012 CYA Sail West - Final Results
2012 CYA Sail East - Final Results
2012 CYA Sail Central at Hudson Yacht Club Fruit Bowl - Final Results
2012 CYA Women's National Keelboat Championships - Final Results
2011 Trihedral CYA National Sailing Championships - Laser / Radial 
2011 Trihedral CYA Youth National (U19) Sailing Championships - Laser / Laser Radial - 420 / 29er  
2011 Canadian Optimist Championships  Championship Fleet - Green Fleet - Team Racing
2011 CORK International Regatta  Optimist - Optimist Green - Laser - Laser Radial - Laser 4.7 - Byte CII - 420 - 29er
2011 CYA Sail West Results  
2011 CYA Sail East LaserLaser Radial - Laser 4.7 - 420 - 29er - Optimist - Optimist Green - Byte  
2011 IRC Canadians Results
2010 CORK Fall Regatt & CYA Laser/Radial National Qualifying Regatta Laser NQR  Radial Open  -  Radial Female NQR  -  29'er49'er  -  420 Optimist 
2010 CORK International Regatta Optimist  -  Optimist Green  -  Laser  -  Laser 4.7  -  O'pen BIC  -  Byte CII  -  29er Gold  -  29er Silver  -  420 Gold  -  420 Silver  -  Radial Gold  -  Radial Silver 
2010 Optimist Canadian Championships Championship Fleet Results & Green Fleet Results
2010 CYA Youth National Championships Under 17 Results
2010 CYA Youth National Championships Under 19 Single-Handed Results & Double-Handed Results
2010 CYA Sail West Results
2010 CYA Sail East Results & Opti Green Winners
2009 Laser North American Championships Results
2009 Laser Canadian Championships Results
2009 2.4mR Canadian Championships Results
2009 CYA Sail West Results
2009 29er Canadian Championships Results
2009 INTACT CYA Youth National Sailing Championships Results
2009 Canada Games  Results
2009 CORK
2009 NAUTEL Laser World Championships
Senior Results
Masters Results
2009 INTACT Canadian Optimist Dinghy Championships
Championship Fleet Results
Green Fleet Results
2009 Mobility Cup with 2.4m North American Championships
2.4m North American Championships Results
Martin 16 Gold Results
Martin 16 Silver Results
Liberty Results
2009 CYA Women's National Keelboat Championships Results
2009 CYA Laser/Radial/47 National Qualifier Regatta Results
2008  -
2008 CYA 16 & Unders East Results
2008 CYA Sail West Results
2008 Laser Canadian Results
2008 CYA Sail East Results
2008 Canadian Optimist Dinghy Championships
Championship Fleet Results
Green Fleet Results
2008 CYA Women’s’ National Keelboat Championship Results
2008 Mobility Cup Results
2008 CYA Laser / Radial National Qualifier Regatta
Laser Fleet Results
Laser Radial Fleet Results

IRC in Canada

IRC in Canada 

Information for Boat Owners 

Credit Card Waiver  (please use this waiver when submitting your application and payment through an IRC measurer).   

Rating Application Forms -  2014 Canadian IRC Fees

Please review the 2014 IRC Rules before applying for a rating. 2014 rule change summary to certificate holders.

New Application
For boats never rated before, or last rated in 2011 or earlier. 

One-Design application
This application may only be used for the one designs listed on the form. All other designs must use the New Application form above.  

Revalidation  /  Revalidation Change Form
To be used only by those boats rated in 2012 or 2013. Boats rated in 2013 will recieve a personalized revalidation form Sail Canada & RORC in early January 2014.

Amendment and Trial Certificates
For use if you hold a current certificate and wish to run an amendment or trial(s). Only complete the information that varies from the current valid certificate.  Changes to hull, keel or rudder must be accompanied by drawings or photographs; for other trials or amendments further information, drawings or photographs may be requested.

Short-Handed Certificate Application / Short Handed Certificate Revalidation
If you occasionally race in specific short-handed races (1 or 2 people) you may apply for an additional short-handed certificate.  Please see IRC Rule 9.2 for full details.

Other forms
Re-Registration Form (Ownership Transfer) 
Sail Canada has been authorized to act as the Canadian Agent for IRC in Canada, representing RORC, the owners of the system. As such, Sail Canada accepts applications on behalf of RORC for all vessels that wish to race under the IRC rules in Canada.

IRC certificates are renewed annually and are valid until December 31st of each year.

IRC Endorsement

RORC Rating Office Updates

If you need any assistance in receiving these documents, wish to file an application or have a question on IRC in Canada, please email the Sail Canada at
For more information on the IRC system, please refer to the documentation provided by RORC at






Offshore Sail Numbers

Offshore Rating Council

Special Regulations

The ISAF Offshore Special Regulations governing Offshore Racing for Monohulls and Multihulls are the internationally accepted minimum equipment, accommodation and training standards for monohull and multihull yachts racing offshore.  Developed by experienced racing sailors over time, they are designed to supplement the requirements of governmental authority, the Racing Rules of Sailing and the rules of Class Associations and Rating Systems
ISAF and Sail Canada strongly recommends the use of these Special Regulations by all organizers of offshore races.  Race Committees may select the category deemed most suitable for the type of race to be sailed in accordance with the definitions in section 2.

ISAF Offshore Special Regulations are reviewed continuously and are published every two years by the ISAF Special Regulations sub-Committee.  (Chaired by Will Apold (NS))

Sail Canada’s Offshore Group prescribe amendments to the Special Regulations to take into account Canadian legislation and practice.


For convenience of competitors and race organisers, Sail Canada makes the following abbreviated documents available:


Disabled Sailing Associations

International and National Associations

International Foundation for Disabled Sailing

Canadian Paralympic Committee

Active Living Alliance

Sailors with Special Needs Committee (US Sailing)

RYA Sailability

Able Sail Network

Provincial Associations

Disabled Sailing Association of British Columbia

Disabled Sailing Association of Alberta

Wind on My Wings Sailing Club, SK

Disabled Sail Manitoba Inc.

Able Sail Ontario

Association québécoise de voile adaptée

AbleSail / Handi-Voile, NB

Sail Able Association of Nova Scotia

Easter Seals Newfoundland and Labrador

Class Associations

Sonar Class

International 2.4mR Class

Martin 16

Access Dinghy

High School Sailing

Sailing is a fabulous life long sport that not only caters to all ages, but all skills, abilities and mindsets. Introducing sailing to school students will increase students' awareness of an excellent option for physical activity available to them for the rest of their lives.

Sport leaders are encouraged to contact your local yacht or sailing clubs or your Provincial Sailing Association to explore possibilities of offering students the experience of trying out the great sport of sailing.

Keen parents, students and teachers are encouraged to check out what the Central Okanagan Sailing Association School Program (PDF) has done to integrate sailing into the Canadian public school system.

Currently, there is a very active high school program in the United States which Canadians schools are welcome to join. For more information, please go to

Women in Wind

In the News

April 2008 Newsletter of the Women Sailors' Association

From the CYA Women's Committee

Women’s Sailing Highlight Events & Proposed Objectives for 2007:

  • Provinces can apply for funding for their Women’s programs by applying to have it as a Women’s Highlight event
  • CYA Women’s Committee will commit to highlight events in each region (west, central, east). We will do our best distribute the limited allotted funds throughout country.
  • These Highlight events will include the existing Speaker Series program.
  • If your speaker series does not get named a Women’s Highlight event we encourage you to contact your Provincial Association to see if they will help support your event.
  • In order for your event to be named a women’s highlight event it must fall under one of the Women’s Committee initiatives for 2006/2007. They are as follows:
  1. Training Camp for athletes and coaches
  2. A speaker at an event (replacing full speaker series)
  3. Mentoring opportunity for younger sailing community members to work with a mentor in their area (can be an athlete-athlete, coach-coach, athlete-coach, athlete-official, official-official etc..)
  4. The Women’s Keelboat Championship gets automatic recognition as a Women’s highlight event and will be counted under whichever region it occurs for that year.
  5. Other similar special event to be presented to the Women’s Committee for approval.

Womens' Sailing Initiatives supported in 2006

Mondays in
June and July
Calgary Yacht Club's Women's Program
Calgary, AB
Summer 2006
Women's Sailing Instruction Clinics
Summer 2006
Women's Keelboat Instruction Course
Femmes de
vent, QC
July 27-29
Royal Victoria YC Women's Regatta
Victoria, BC


2006 Female Coach Initiative:

The CYA Womens' Committee supported Female Coachng for the Canadian Team at the 2006 Optimist Dinghy European Championships.

History of the CYA Women in Wind Campaign

On June 28, 2003 at the Armdale Yacht Club in Halifax NS, Christine Searle, Chair of the CYA's Womens Committee launched a national awareness campaign designed to help increase the participation of women in sailing.

Currently, less than 30% of Canada's competitive sailors are female and only 15% are coaches and officials. Yet 50% of those participating in Learn to Sail programs are female. The "Women in Wind" presentation aims to increase the participation of women and girls to participate in the lifelong sport of sailing. The presentation provides information and examples of how women of all ages and interests can get involved in sailing. The New and Improved Women in Wind Presentation, Updated January 2005 is now available. Please check the PDF Version. Please also check out Appendix 1- Organization of sailing in Powerpoint and Appendix 1- Organization of sailing in PDF and Appendix 2-Ottawa Women's Sailing Association Case Study in Powerpoint and Appendix 2-Ottawa Women's Sailing Association Case Study in PDF.

Each year, women sailors, coaches and race officials from across the country are encouraged to attend and help organize "Women in Wind" seminars, camps and clinics. The goal of any "Women and Wind" initiative is to increase the numbers of girls and women involved with the sport of sailing.

The CYA "Women In Wind" Program is a well recognized initiative, most recently featured in the new ACTive Canadian Strategy and Action Blueprint. This project was spearheaded by the Canadian Association for the Advancement of Women in Sport, also known as CAAWS.

In the fall of 2002, the CYA Women's Committee prepared a planning and evaluation template for the Women and Wind Program (PDF)

CYA Women and Wind Description

Some examples of events granted assistance &/or funding via the "Women in Wind" initiatives in the past include:

  • Race clinics for youth sailors as well as the "young at heart" in all boat types.
  • Race Management, Umpiring and Judging clinics.
  • Financial assistance given to women pursuing goals in measurement, coaching and as officials.
  • Guest speakers at seminars, clinics and camps.

Articles and Resources

Top Female Sports Coaches Keynote speakers at 2007 Sports Leadership Conference

La Route d'Elissa Donna Lange, a journey around the world alone.

Report from the Quebec Women in Wind 2005 program

Olympic Experiences: A National Coach Speaks Out

Chantal Leger's Olympic Presentation

CAAWS Stacey Levitt Women and Sport Memorial Scholarship

Women Sailing Associations in Canada

Women’s Racing on the Ottawa River

Women's Sailors' Association


Is racing for you?

Sailboat racing is offered in a variety of boat types, in a variety of formats…From the relaxed inter-club weeknight race to international offshore regattas. There is definitely a racing niche that will fit your goals, phpirations and time frame!


Class Associations

High School Sailing

Team Racing

University Sailing

ISAF Match Racing Manuals

Racing Rules

Whether you are a regatta organizer, a club trying to determine the best handicap rating system, a measurer, or a sailor striving to understand the rules…read on! The CYA has many programs and services in place to help in the development and maintenance of appropriate rules and regulations.

The Racing Rules of Sailing

Race Management Tools

Interpretations of the Racing Rules of Sailing

Protests and Appeals



U.S. Portsmouth Numbers

The experimental arbitration system

List of CYA certified officials

Race Officials

Regatta Organization


Logo Usage Guidelines
Media Guide
Guide to the ISAF Advertising Code 2006
ISAF's Guidelines for Safety at Designated Regattas

Race Officer Guidelines for Events


Entry Form
Protest Form / Formulaire de Réclamation

Request for Redress Form
Regatta Report and Claim Form
Volunteer Expense Form
Regatta and Event Questionnaire

Minor Release Waiver for National Competitions (bilingual)

Codes of Conduct

Youth Code of Conduct
Coaches Code of Conduct
Sailor's Oath

Other Useful Documents

ISAF Arbitration Procedure
Event Planning Table


Offshore Racing and Regulations

News and Events

For information about offshore sailing and racing in Canada, the USA and on an international level, the following links will provide you with useful information.

For information about offshore sailing in your area, please contact your Provincial Sailing Association.

The Special Regulations

The Offshore Racing Council (ORC) / ISAF Offshore Racing Committee

Sail Numbers

IRC in Canada

US Sailing Offshore Site


Thousands of different sailboat racing events are held in Canada and around the world each year. Please check out the following links to jump onboard!

Sail Canada Title Events

Regatta Calendar

ISAF Regatta Schedule

Training Opportunities for sailors with disabilities

Event Results